Sunday, February 20, 2011

Civil & structural Engineering Solution

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Structural engineering is a field of engineering dealing with the analysis and design of structures that support or resist loads. Structural engineering is usually considered a specialty within civil engineering, but it can also be studied in its own right. Structural engineers are most commonly involved in the design of buildings and large nonbuilding structures. but they can also be involved in the design of machinery, medical equipment, vehicles or any item where structural integrity affects the item's function or safety. Structural engineers must ensure their designs satisfy given design criteria, predicated on safety (e.g. structures must not collapse without due warning) or serviceability and performance (e.g. building sway must not cause discomfort to the occupants). Buildings are made to endure massive loads as well as changing climate and natural disasters. Structural engineering has existed since humans first started to construct their own structures. It became a more defined and formalised profession with the emergence of the architecture profession as distinct from the engineering profession during the industrial revolution in the late 19th Century. Until then, the architect and the structural engineer were usually one and the same - the master builder. Only with the development of specialised knowledge of structural theories that emerged during the 19th and early 20th centuries did the professional structural engineer come into existence.
Seismic Engineering services or, simply, seismic analysis is a major intellectual tool of earthquake engineering which breaks the complex topic into smaller parts to gain a better understanding of seismic performance of building and non-building structures. The technique as a formal concept is a relatively recent development. In general, seismic analysis is based on the methods of structural dynamics. For decades, the most prominent instrument of seismic analysis has been the earthquake response spectrum method which, also, contributed to the proposed building code's concept of today However, those spectra are good, mostly, for single-degree-of-freedom systems. Performance evaluations is generally carried out by using nonlinear static pushover analysis or full direct nonlinear time history analysis. In these analysis process, first nonlinear modeling of building components such as beams, columns, beam-column joints, shear walls etc. are required. It is essential that nonlinear response of these components should be validated by the experimental results in order to ensure the accuracy of the analysis. After validating all components of buildings with experimental results, these components are assemble to create a full nonlinear model of the structure. Thus created model are analyzed to evaluate the performance of buildings.

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